Bruno Abakanowicz Mathematician
Bruno Abdank-Abakanowicz (6 October 1852 – 29 August 1900) was a mathematician, inventor and electrical engineer. Abakanowicz was born in 1852 in Vilkmergė, Lithuania, then part of the Russian Empire. After graduating from the Riga Technical University, Abakanowicz passed his habilitation and began an assistantship at the Technical University of Lwów. In 1881, he moved to France where he purchased a villa in Parc St. Maur on the outskirts of Paris. Earlier he invented the integraph, a form of the integrator, which was patented in 1880, and was henceforth produced by the Swiss firm Coradi. Among his other patents were the parabolagraph, the spirograph, the electric bell used in trains, and an electric arc lamp of his own design. Abakanowicz published several works, including works on statistics, integrators and numerous popular scientific works, such as one describing his integraph. He was also hired by the French government as an expert on electrification and was the main engineer behind the electrification of, among other places, the city of Lyon. His patents allowed him to become a wealthy man and made him receive the Legion d'Honneur in 1889.
An Integraph is an instrument used in mathematics for plotting the integral of a graphically defined function. It was invented independently about 1880 by the British physicist Sir Charles Vernon Boys and by Bruno Abakanowicz, a Polish-Lithuanian mathematician from the Russian Empire. An integraph consists of a rectangular carriage which moves left to right on rollers, two sides of which run parallel to the x axis on the Cartesian plane. The other two sides are parallel to the y axis. Along the trailing vertical rail, slides a smaller carriage holding a tracing point. Along the leading vertical rail slides a second smaller carriage to which is affixed a small, sharp disc, which rests and rolls on the graphing paper. It will not rotate about its point of contact with the paper. The trailing carriage is connected both with a point in the center of the carriage and the disc on the leading rail by a system of sliding crossheads and wires, such that the tracing point must follow the disc's tangential path.
Spirograph is a geometric drawing toy that produces mathematical roulette curves of the variety technically known as hypotrochoids and epitrochoids. It was developed by British engineer Denys Fisher and first sold in 1965. The name has been a registered trademark of Hasbro, Inc., since it bought the Denys Fisher company. The Spirograph brand was relaunched with original product configurations in 2013 by Kahootz Toys.