Carl Grünberg Politician
Carl Grünberg (February 10, 1861, Focşani - February 2, 1940, Frankfurt/Main) was the first director of the Institute for Social Research, later known as the Frankfurt School. He established and edited a journal of labour and socialist history today known as Grünbergs Archiv (Archive for the History of Socialism and the Worker's Movement). He retired in 1929 and left the Institute to Max Horkheimer.
1. Institute for Social Research
The Institute for Social Research is a research organization for sociology and continental philosophy, best known as the institutional home of the Frankfurt School and critical theory. The Institute was founded in Frankfurt am Main in 1923, where it was affiliated with the University of Frankfurt am Main. It was founded by Felix Weil, a student of the Marxian philosopher Karl Korsch, with an endowment provided by Weil's wealthy father Hermann Weil. Its first director, Kurt Albert Gerlach, died before making his mark, and was swiftly followed by Carl Grünberg, a Marxist historian who gathered together fellow "orthodox" Marxists at the Institute, including his former pupil Henryk Grossman. Grünberg was followed by co-founder Friedrich Pollock. Following a non-fatal heart attack, Grünberg was succeeded in 1930 by Max Horkheimer. Horkheimer rapidly became the guiding spirit of the Frankfurt School, a group of thinkers that was born under his directorship at the Institute. Horkheimer edited the group's journal Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung and wrote essays defining a critical theory of society.