Elmer Thompson (c. 1885 – February 1929) was an American football player. He played for Cornell University from 1905 to 1907 and was selected as a first-team All-American in both 1906 and 1907.
Thompson grew up in Waterbury, Connecticut and played three years of football at Andover. He was also a "weight man" for Andover's track team, competing in the hammer throw and shot put. Thompson was the captain of Andover's football team as a senior, and in April 1903, the Boston Evening Transcript reported that he had been "much sought after" due to "his splendid" work on the Andover football team. He initially committed to attend Yale University, but changed his mind and enrolled at Cornell University. He played at the guard position for Cornell football team from 1905 to 1907, and was selected as a first-team All-American in 1906 and 1907. He weighed "close to 250 pounds," and The New York Times described him as "one of the largest men who ever played on a college gridiron.