Esmeralda Athanasiu-Gardeev (1834–1917) was a Romanian pianist and composer. Athanasiu-Gardeev was born in Galaţi, Moldavia, in 1834. She studied music in Bucharest and then piano and composition in Paris with Julius Schulhoff and composition in St. Petersburg with Anton Rubenstein. She married Vasile Hermaziu and then General Gardeev who introduced her to Russian aristocracy. After the Romanian War of Independence, she lived in Bucharest, teaching voice, lute and piano. She died in Bucharest in 1917. Many of Athanasiu-Gardeev's compositions were based on Romanian folklore.