Frederick V (German: Friedrich V.) (16 August 1596 – 29 November 1632) was Elector Palatine (1610–23), and, as Frederick I (Czech: Fridrich Falcký), King of Bohemia (1619–20, for his short reign he is often nicknamed the Winter King, Czech: Zimní král; German: Winterkönig).
Frederick was born at the jagdschloss Deinschwang (a hunting lodge) near Amberg in the Upper Palatinate. He was the son and heir of Frederick IV and of Louise Juliana of Nassau, the daughter of William the Silent and Charlotte de Bourbon-Monpensier. He – an intellectual, a mystic, and a Calvinist – succeeded his father as Prince-Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate in 1610. He was responsible for the construction of the famous Hortus Palatinus gardens in Heidelberg.
In 1618 the Protestant estates of Bohemia rebelled against the Roman Catholic King Ferdinand and offered the crown of Bohemia to Frederick, choosing him since he was the leader of the Protestant Union, a military alliance founded by his father. Frederick duly accepted the crown (coronation on 4 November 1619), which triggered the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War.