Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron, Duchess of Polignac (8 September 1749 – 9 December 1793) was the favourite of Marie Antoinette, whom she first met when she was presented at the Palace of Versailles in 1775, the year after Marie Antoinette became the Queen of France. She was considered one of the great beauties of pre-Revolutionary high society, but her extravagance and exclusivity earned her many enemies.
Yolande Martine Gabrielle de Polastron was born in Paris in the reign of King Louis XV. Her parents were Jean François Gabriel, comte de Polastron, seigneur de Noueilles, Venerque and Grépiac, and Jeanne Charlotte Hérault. As was customary with aristocrats, most of whom bore more than one Christian name, she was generally known by the last of her names (Gabrielle). She was born into a family of ancient aristocratic lineage, however by the time of Gabrielle's birth, despite their exalted ancestry, the family were encumbered by many debts and their lifestyle was far from luxurious.
Whilst Gabrielle was still an infant, her parents moved to the family château of Noueilles, in the province of Languedoc in southern France.