Henry Sutton Dudley, also known as Henry Dudley, (1517–1568) was an English soldier, sailor, diplomat, and conspirator of the Tudor period.
Born in Dudley Castle, Staffordshire, Henry Dudley was the second son of John Sutton, 3rd Baron Dudley, and the younger brother of Edward Sutton, 4th Baron Dudley. His mother was Cicely, the daughter of Thomas Grey, 1st Marquis of Dorset. Dudley was the first cousin of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, the father of Lady Jane Grey, and the second cousin once removed of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. He is not to be confused with the youngest of Northumberland's sons, also named Henry Dudley, who married Margaret, the daughter of Lord Chancellor Thomas Audley.
Henry became a monastic auditor under Thomas Cromwell in 1535, and then a soldier serving in Ireland under his uncle Leonard Grey in 1536, and in Scotland from 1540-3. Dudley fought gallantly during the siege of Boulogne in 1544, and was made a Captain early in 1545 under Lord Clinton. It was about 1535–1545, probably at Boulogne that he married the daughter of Christopher Ashton, (b 1493) who was born about 1519 and who bore him a son, Roger Dudley.