Kanjeng Pangeran Haryo Prof. Dr. Koentjaraningrat ([kʊntʃaraˈniŋrat]; 15 June 1923 – 23 March 1999) was an Indonesian anthropologist. He is sometimes referred to as "the father of Indonesian anthropology".
Koentjaraningrat was born in Yogyakarta, Indonesia on 15 June 1923 to a Pakualaman family. His mother wanted him to obtain a Dutch education, so he was educated at Europeesche Lagere School, followed by Middelbare Uitgebreid Lager Onderwijs and Algemeen Middelbare School in Yogyakarta, later moving to Jakarta to finish his schooling. He became fluent in Dutch and English.
During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Koentjaraningrat was working at the National Library of Indonesia. He was tasked with escorting books from Jakarta to Yogyakarta for safekeeping. He later enrolled at Gadjah Mada University, majoring in Indonesian literature, because the political situation did not allow him to return to Jakarta.
After the Japanese withdrawal from Indonesia, Koentjaraningrat joined the 29th Brigade of the Student Forces as an English and history teacher. He was stationed in Kediri and later Mojoagung, East Java.