Neithhotep was the first queen of ancient Egypt, cofounder of the First dynasty, and is the earliest woman in history whose name is known. The name Neithhotep means "[The Goddess] Neith is satisfied". Neithhotep's dynastic marriage to Narmer, which could represent the start of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt, c. 3200 BCE with the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, may be represented on the Narmer Macehead. Indeed, in this view Neithhotep was originally a princess of Lower Egypt, before marriage to Narmer (Thinite king of Upper Egypt). An alternative theory, based on the location of her tomb, holds that Neithhotep was a member of the royal line of Naqada. Neithhotep was the wife of Narmer or wife or mother of Hor-Aha and possibly the mother of Benerib, Hor-Aha's wife. Neithhotep's name was found in several locations: Her titles were: ḫntỉ (Foremost of Women), sm3ỉ.t nb.tỉ (Consort of the Two Ladies). Both were titles given to queens during the First dynasty. Neithhotep tomb was a large mastaba first excavated by Jacques de Morgan at the end of the 19th century and now lost due to erosion.




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