Mykola Fedorovich Gamaliya (Ukrainian: Микола Федорович Гамалія; Russian: Никола́й Фёдорович Гамале́я; 17 February 1859 [O.S. 5 February] – 29 March 1949) was a Ukrainian physician and scientist who played a pioneering role in microbiology and vaccine research in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Ukrainian by ethnicity, Gamaleya was born in Odessa, then part of the Russian Empire. He graduated from Odessa's Novorossiysky University (now Odessa University) in 1880 and the St. Petersburg Military Medical Academy (now the S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy) in 1883. He became a respected hospital physician in his native Odessa afterward.
Gamaleya worked in Louis Pasteur's laboratory in France in 1886. Following Pasteur's model after his return, he joined Ilya Mechnikov in organizing an Odessa bacteriological station for rabies vaccination studies and research on combating cattle plague and cholera, diagnosing sputum for tuberculosis, and preparing anthrax vaccines. The Odessa Bacteriological Institute became Russia's first-ever bacteriological observation station.