Robert Michels Academic

Robert Michels (9 January 1876, Cologne, Germany — 3 May 1936, Rome, Italy) was a German sociologist who wrote on the political behavior of intellectual elites and contributed to elite theory. He is best known for his book Political Parties, which contains a description of the "iron law of oligarchy.", published in 1911. He was a student of Max Weber, a friend and disciple of Werner Sombart and Achille Loria. Politically, he moved from the Social Democratic Party of Germany to the Italian Socialist Party, adhering to the Italian revolutionary syndicalist wing and later to Italian Fascism, which he saw as a more democratic form of socialism. His ideas provided the basis of moderation theory which delineates the processes through which radical political groups are incorporated into the existing political system. Michels, from a wealthy German family, studied in England, Paris (at the Sorbonne), and at universities in Munich, Leipzig (1897), Halle (1898), and Turin. He became a Socialist while teaching at the University of Marburg and became active in the radical wing of the Social Democratic Party of Germany; he left the party in 1907.

Personal details

Date of birth
January 9th, 1876
Date of death
May 3rd, 1936 at age of 60
Place of death
Rome, Italy

Written work

1.Sexual ethics

Editions Subjects Co-authors
1914. at New York City

2.First lectures in political sociology

Editions Subjects Co-authors
1949. at Minneapolis


Check Robert Michels on wikipedia.

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