Roger Sherman Baldwin (January 4, 1793 – February 19, 1863) was an American lawyer involved in the Amistad case, who later became the 32nd Governor of Connecticut and a United States Senator.
Baldwin was son of Simeon Baldwin and Rebecca Sherman in New Haven, Connecticut. He was the maternal grandson of notable founding father Roger Sherman (the only person to sign all four great state papers of the U.S.: the Continental Association, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution). He attended Hopkins School, and entered Yale College at the age of fourteen, and graduated with high honors in 1811. After leaving Yale he studied law in his father's office in New Haven, and also in the Litchfield Law School, and was admitted to the bar in 1814. Although repeatedly called into public office, he devoted himself through life to the profession of his choice, attaining the highest distinction, especially in the discussion of questions of law. His defense in 1841, of the rights of the Africans of the Amistad, is celebrated both on account of its marked ability, and also because of the peculiar interest which was felt in these unfortunate captives.