Sergei Sergeyevich Brukhonenko (Russian: Сергей Сергеевич Брюхоненко, 1890–1960) was a Soviet scientist during the Stalinist era. Brukhonenko's research was vital to the development of open-heart procedures in Russia. He was one of the leaders of the Research Institute of Experimental Surgery, where Professor A. A. Vishnevsky performed the first Soviet open-heart operation in 1957.
Brukhonenko is primarily remembered for his development of the autojektor, a primitive heart and lung machine. The device was used with mixed results in a series of experiments with canines during the late 1930s, which can be seen in the film Experiments in the Revival of Organisms. While some today speculate that the film is a re-staging of the procedures, the experiments themselves were well documented, and resulted in Brukhonenko being posthumously awarded the prestigious Lenin Prize.