Thomas Plowden (1594 – 13 February 1664) was an English Jesuit to whom has been traditionally attributed an important translation under the name of Thomas Salusbury.
Thomas Plowden was born in Oxfordshire, England, the son of Francis Plowden of Shiplake Court in Oxfordshire and Wokefield Park in Berkshire, and the younger brother of Edmund Plowden (colonial governor). His grandfather, Edmund Plowden was a famous lawyer during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. He entered the Society of Jesus, 1617 and was sent on the English Mission about 1622. He was seized, with other fathers, by the pursuivants, in 1628, at Clerkenwell, the London residence of the Jesuits. He filled various responsible offices of the order, and laboured on the perilous English Mission until his death in London.
As was the case with his contemporary Nathaniel Bacon, English Jesuits, given their illegal status as recusants often published under assumed names. Plowden presented his translations under the name of the distinguished Welsh Salusbury family. Shakespeare's The Phoenix and the Turtle (1601) is dedicated to John Salusbury (poet), also the name of Jesuit active in Wales in the Jacobean era.